Most research papers include a Works Cited or Bibliography section at the end: a list of books and other published material used in writing the paper. The Works Cited or Bibliography section serves two purposes:

    • It shows what research was done for the paper.

    • It suggests to interested readers possible sources for further study.

    Generally, Works Cited sections reflect works quoted in the text, while Bibliography, more broadly, includes all works read for the paper.

    The citation suggestions made here are based on the format established by the Modern Language Association (MLA) with whose permission the following has been made available. Students should be aware that other formats exist and may be required by other schools or individual instructors.

    MLA Style has three major features. First, all sources cited in a paper are listed in the Works Cited, which is located at the end of the paper (see detailed instructions below). Second, material borrowed from another source is documented within the text of the paper by the use of Parenthetical Documentation (See section on "Parenthetical Documentation".) Third, numbered footnotes or endnotes are only used to present supplementary information such as: (1) commentary or explanation that the text cannot accommodate and (2) bibliographical notes that contain several source citations.



    1. Alphabetize all entries according to the first word of each entry. Do not consider A, An, or The when alphabetizing.
    2. If the first word is identical in two entries, alphabetize those entries by the first letter that differentiates the two.
    3. Follow the style sheet carefully for order of names and punctuation.
    4. Single space within an entry, and double space the entire list between entries.

    (1) Print, Audio, Film and Video Media Citations
    When citing information from print, audio, film, and video provide the following general categories of information. Start each entry at the margin. If the entry goes beyond one line, indent the next lines five spaces or use the Tab key or hanging indent if using a word processor.


    1. Name of author, or editor (if author is unknown) followed by a period.
    2. Portions of entire works are followed by a period and enclosed in quotation mark.

      chapter poem episode of a TV program
      article essay lecture
      song short story

    3. Title of a complete work (underlined) followed by a period.

      book magazine TV program
      long poem newspaper work of art
      play journal record/CD album
      pamphlet film musical composition
      legal case ballet name of ship or aircraft

    4. City of publication followed by a colon.
    5. Publisher followed by a comma.
    6. Date of publication (day first, then month and year) followed by a period except if page numbers are to be listed. When pages are listed, separate date and pages by a colon.
    7. Volume number, issue number , page number (s) followed by a period.


    ONE AUTHOR Forester, C. S. The Barbary Pirates. New
    York: Random House, 1993.
    Havemann, Ernest, and Patricia West.
    They Went to College. New York:
    Harcourt, Brace and Company, 1992.
    THREE OR MORE AUTHORS Campbell, Angus, Philip Converse and
    Donald Stokes. The American Voter.
    New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1994.
    IN TRANSLATION Dostoevski, Feodor. Crime and
    . Trans. Jessie Coulson.
    New York: Norton, 1984.




    Gunn, Giles, ed. Literature and Religion.
    New York: Harper, 1971.

    Aiken, Conrad. "Silent Snow, Secret
    Snow." American Literature. Ed.
    Edward J. Gordon. Boston: Ginn and
    Co., 1967: 191-94.

    ONE CHAPTER Campbell, John E. "New Power for
    Peace." The Atomic Story. New York:
    Henry Holt and Company, 1991:
    with author

    no author given

    less familiar or subject reference book

    Mitman, Carl W. "Reynolds, Edwin."
    Dictionary of American Biography.
    New York: Charles Scribner"s Sons,
    1993, VIII: 517-518.

    "Political Parties." Compton"s
    . 1991 ed.

    Trainer, Isaac. N. "Religious Directives
    in Medical Ethics." Encyclopedia of
    Bioethics. Ed. Watten T. Reich.
    Vol. 3. New York: Free Press, 1988.
    4 vols.


    author given

    no author given

    Brody, Jane E. "Multiple Cancers Termed
    on Increase." New York Times
    10 Oct. 1976: sec. A: 17.

    "Infant Mortality Down; Race Disparity
    Widens." Washington Post 12 Mar.
    1993: sec. A: 12.

    author given

    no author given

    Cohen, Hennig. "Melville Isn"t for the
    Masses." Saturday Review 16 Aug.
    1989: 19-26.

    "An Anglo-Chicano Lexicon." Time 4 July
    1969: 18.
    no author given
    Accident Facts. Chicago: National Safety
    Council, 1953.


    RADIO or TV PROGRAM "The Case for Capital Punishment."
    Dateline NBC. NBC. WDIV, Detroit.
    1 December 1997.

    Murder, She Wrote. CBS. WJBK, Detroit.
    22 May 1988.
    Naught, John. Personal interview.
    12 May 1988.
    RECORDING Bon Jovi, Jon. Slippery When Wet. With
    Dave Bryan, Richie Sambora, Alec
    John Such, Tico Torves, and Jon Bon
    Jovi. Polygram Records, 830264-4 MI,
    FILMSTRIP or VIDEO Prison and Prison Reform. Prentice Hall
    Media. 1974.

    All the President"s Men. Videocassette.
    Robert Redford. CBS. Video, 1979.
    127 min.


    When citing information from CD-ROMs, online databases, and computer networks, provide the following general categories of information using a hanging indentation:

    1. Name of author, editor (if author is unknown) followed by a period.
    2. Title of poem, short story, or article within a database followed by a period and enclosed in quotation marks. Title of posting to discussion list or forum (copied from subject line) followed by a period and enclosed in quotation marks.
    3. Title of book, database, periodical or site (underlined) followed by a period.
    4. Name of editor, compiler.
    5. Version number, volume number, issue number.
    6. Date of electronic publication, update, or posting (day first, then month and year) followed by a period.
    7. Number range or total number of pages, paragraphs, or sections, if they are numbered.
    8. Name of any institution or organization sponsoring or associated with the web site followed by a period.
    9. Date of access.
    10. URL in angle brackets followed by a period or, for a subscription service, the URL of the service"s main page (if known) or the keyword assigned by the service.

    (This model represents an abridged form of the current MLA requirements; for more detailed citations of electronic media, see the MLA Handbook, or consult the MLA web site at <http://www.mla.org.style/sources.htm>) or the Grosse Pointe Public Schools Library Media Center web site <http://www.gpschools.org/library/recommended.htm>).

    ELECTRONIC ENCYCLOPEDIA Ardaugh, John. "France." Online posting.
    Encyclopedia Americana Online.
    version 2.9. 2000. Grolier. 5 May www.gpschools.org/site/default.aspx?domainid=60




    Rosenmann, Larry. "Water Watch."
    Conservationist April 1997: 13.

    Cannon, Carl M. "U.S. Plans Cleanup of
    Waters." Baltimore Sun 19 Feb. 1998:
    1A+. SIRS, Researcher.

    McLaughlin, Abraham. "EPA Floats
    New Program To Save America"s
    Rivers." The Christian Science Monitor
    5 March 1998: 3. NewsBank. 10 May,
    2000 <http://infoweb.newsbank.com/>.

    Smith, Jack. "Family history and
    multicultural study." Multicultural
    . Volume 6, 1998: Wilson
    Select. 10 May, 2000

    "Marshall, Thurgood." Current Biography,
    1954. Wilson Biographies. 10 May,
    2000 <http://vweb.hwwilsonweb.com/

    "Detroit Regional Yacht-Racing
    Association Listings." 8 May 1996.
    22 September 1998

    "Preventing Urban Water Pollution."
    City of Topeka Department of Public
    Works. Internet. 3 June 1998

    "Margaret (Eleanor) Atwood." DISCovering
    Authors. version 2.0. Farmington Hills,
    Michigan: Gale Research, 1996.

    Brode, Mary Elizabeth. "Ireland Travel
    Guide" Email to Ryan Coffey
    20 September 1998.

    "Geographic Health Recommendations:
    Western Europe." Center for Disease
    Control and Prevention. 30 July 1998.
    22 September 1998

    Sample WORKS CITED (Bibliography)

    "An Anglo-Chicano Lexicon." Time. 4 July 1969: 18.

    Brody, Jane E. "Multiple Cancers Termed on Increase." New
    York Times
    . 10 Oct. 1976: sec. A: 17.

    Bronte, Emily. Collected Poems. Ed. Joseph Schmidt. London:
    Oxford UP, 1981. U. of California Internet Library.
    12 Oct. 1995. <http://www.lib.berkeley.edu/>.

    Guggenheim Museum. 6 December , 1997

    Havemann, Ernest, and Patricia West. They Went to College.
    New York: Harcourt, Brace and Co., 1952.

    Satchell, Michael. "Taking Back the Land That Once was So
    Pure." U.S. News & World Report. 4 May 1998:
    v. 124 no.17. First Search, Wilson Select.


    A Guide to Communication:The Grosse Pointe Public Schools Style Sheet
    © The Grosse Pointe Public School System, 2000