In indicating material borrowed from another source, use parenthetical acknowledgments in your paper. This is especially efficient when the material borrowed is from one source only, but it also applies when doing research from multiple sources. (When citing from the Internet include paragraph number if they are numbered on the screen, since there are no pages numbers, e.g. Danz pars. 16-18).

    (1) When the author"s name is not mentioned in the text:

    Erik Erikson is the psychologist who invented the term, "identity crisis" (Hergenhahn 117).

    (2) After the first reference to the source (Hergenhahn 117), include only the page number (118).  When more than one text is cited in an essay, the author"s name remains in the citation to avoid confusion.

    (3) When the author"s name is already clear to the reader:

    Sigmund Freud believed that the superego was a very harsh part of the personality that we generally call the conscience (410).


    An annotated bibliography begins with a standard bibliography entry followed by a short description of the work. This description, two to five sentences long, tells about the book"s format and content. The purpose is to acquaint the potential reader with the book as a way to help the new reader decide whether or not the book is worth reading. Such things as content, length of book, style of writing, audience to which it appeals, and the uniqueness of the book are revealed in an annotation. The Book Review Digest uses such annotations.


    (1) Shorter prose quotations should be inserted in the text of the essay and enclosed in double quotation marks.

    The reader begins to recognize Olenka"s true nature in the statement that "Olenka grew fuller and was always beaming with contentment; while Kikin grew thinner and yellower and complained of his terrible losses, though he did fairly well the whole winter" (410).

    NOTE: When integrating a quotation into a sentence, verb tenses must agree. Changes made in the original are enclosed in brackets.

    Norman Mailer"s "The Language of Men" describes the problems Sanford Carter has fitting into the army and a masculine world. He knows "that if he [does] not find his niche . . . he [will] crack" (37). and therefore, he takes a job in the kitchen as a cook, hoping this will be the answer.

    (2) A longer prose quotation running four or more lines of typescript (35 or more words) should be indented in its entirety ten typewriter characters or a one inch tab from the left margin and typed single spaced. Paragraphs should be indicated by indenting the first line an additional three typewriter characters. No quotation marks should be used.

    In his first paragraph Maupassant

    demonstrated the "economy" demanded

    in the short story:

    [first line indent 13 spaces]
    [second line 10 spaces]

       She was the daughter of a provincial tax collector who had been dead several years. She had come to Paris with her mother, who made friends with some middle class families in the neighborhood in hopes of marrying off the young lady. They were poor and respectable, gentle and sweet (76).

    (3) When quoting a passage of DIALOG, indent and single space as described above and use double quotation marks.

      Double-spaced text would introduce the quotation:

      [first line indent 13 spaces]

         "I want some poison," she said.
         "Yes, Miss Emily. What kind? For rats and such? I"d recom -"
         "I want the best you have."
         "What you want is -"
         "Arsenic," Miss Emily said. "Is that a good one"

    The text returns to the margin to finish the paragraph.

      When dialogue is part of a long quotation, indent as described in section (1) and use double quotation marks around the dialogue.

      (4) When quoting a long passage which is one person"s speech, indent, single-space, and omit quotation marks.

      [standard margin]

      Mr. Hooper, the central character in "The

      Minister"s Black Veil" has chosen to wear a

      black veil the rest of his life. When his fiancée,

      Elizabeth, asks him the reason, he replies


        [10 spaces]

      Know thee this veil is a type and symbol, and I am bound to wear it, both in light and darkness, in solitude and before the gaze of multitudes, and as with strangers, so with my familiar friends. No mortal eye will see it withdrawn (Hawthorne 149).

        The text returns to the margin to finish the paragraph.

      (5) When integrating dialogue, use single quotations marks inside double quotations marks to denote a quotation within a quotation.

      The schoolmaster in the novel confessed that he found it "impossible to teach the "to be or not to be" speech."


      (1) Fewer than four lines quoted: Use quotation marks and indicate line ends with a slash (/).

      [standard margin]

      Dickinson"s poem, "Those--Dying then," discussed her lack of belief in the traditional God of her ancestors. "Those--dying then,/ Knew where they went--/ They went to God"s Right Hand" she says in referring to past attitudes.

      NOTE: To refer to an untitled poem, quote the first line or first significant phrase, whichever is shorter.

      (2) Four or more lines quoted: Indent ten spaces or two Tab spaces on both margins or center the lines, omitting quotation marks and single spacing the quotation. Skip a space above and one below the indented material. When quoting and indenting a block of poetry, you may need "hanging indentation" for longer lines, indenting their endings under the first words of the line to keep the actual line clear.

      Double spaced text introduced the quotations

      from Walt Whitman"s "Song of Myself".

        [ten spaces           [ten spaces
        or centered]           or centered]

      A child said What is the grass?
      Fetching it to me with full hands;
      How could I answer the child? I do not
          know what that is any more than he.
      I guess it might be the flag of my
      disposition, out of hopeful green
          stuff woven.
      Or guess it is the handkerchief of the

      Following the quotation, the text continues at the margin.


      (1) Ellipsis: When a portion of the quoted passage is omitted, indicate this omission by putting three spaced periods (. . .) in place of the material which is missing. If the last part of a sentence or a whole sentence is omitted, use four
      periods (. . . .).

      (2) Brackets: Brackets indicate the writer"s words inserted into or substituted for part of the quotation. They are also used to indicate a change in tense to match the tense of the text in which the quotation is used.

      (3) End Marks: In American usage, periods and commas always go inside quotation marks, regardless of sense. Semi-colons and colons go outside. Exclamation points and question marks are placed either inside or outside according to demands of the quoted material.

      "Read me "The Lottery,"" he said.
      She asked, "Have you read "The Lottery"?"

      (4) Abbreviations:

      e.g. for example used to introduce an example of a point
      et. al and others used to truncate a list of names, such as authors
      etc. and so forth used at the end of a list to indicate the list could continue
      ibid. in the same place used only in a bibliography or in endnotes when referencing a source immediately preceding the entry
      i.e. that is used to elaborate on a point

      A Guide to Communication:The Grosse Pointe Public Schools Style Sheet
      © The Grosse Pointe Public School System, 2000